WIKING RUF Europäische Freiwilligen in der Waffen-SS





No  exact date has been found for the introduction of the title “Waffen-SS”, but Reichsführer-SS Himmler stated that it should be used in a directive, dated December 1st, 1939 (published March 8th, 1940). The Chief of Staff of the SS-Führerhauptamt, SS-Gruppenführer Jüttner, orderd on April 22nd, 1941, that the terms “SS-Verfügungstruppe” and “SS-Totenkopfverbände” were obsolete and no longer to be used. The Leibstandarte was Hitler's bodyguard unit, his personal Praetorian Guard. They were the troops, handpicked as the perfect specimens of the Aryan ideal and the most faithful and totally committed to the Nazi cause.

Purpose of the SS : "...The Gods of the new Germany will be the SS"  

Reichsführer-SS Himmler, 1931


The birth of the SS
Hitler was still convinced that his opponents, both within and outside the Nazi Party, would try to kill him if they had the opportunity. On his release from prison he moved quickly to re-establish his bodyguard. In April 1925 only eight men were in the group that was soon renamed the Schutz Staffel, or Protection Squad. This title was quickly abbreviated to SS, creating the infamous name and, because of their distinctive black uniforms, they were soon nicknamed the Black Guard or Black Order. Their uniforms were adorned with the letters SS, stylized as distinctive Nordic runes. For the next four years the SS was a small, elite group of bodyguards that travelled with Hitler wherever he went. They were initially volunteers who did their security work in the evenings or at weekends. Only a small number of the 300 or so SS men were full-time on the Nazi Party payroll.

As Hitler moved to establish the Nazi Party as a national body outside of his Bavarian power base, the SS was expanded and small detachments were set up in every major German city to protect local leaders and party meetings. The SS was deliberately kept small so its total loyalty to Hitler could be assured.

Ever since 1933 a portion of the SS has been armed and trained along military lines and served on a full-time basis, living in special barracks. These troops were originally known as the SS-Verfügungstruppen (SS-VT), the name indicating that they were held at the disposition of Hitler for any purpose whatever. By 1939 four regiments (Standarten) of these troops had been organized.

Already, Hitler was growing suspicious of Ernst Röhm and the SA because their "hot-headed" behavior was threatening his attempts to re-brand the Nazi Party as a "respectable" political force (Röhm saw the SA as the nucleus of a revolutionary army).When Hitler began WWII, RFSS Himmler wanted to ensure that the SS - guardians of the internal security of the Reich - got their share of the military glory. In early 1940, he combined the above three units into the "Waffen-SS."

By August 1940, Hitler and Himmler further defined the purpose of the Waffen-SS:

The Waffen-SS will help execute the authority of the state within the borders of the Greater German Empire;

The Waffen-SS will be a paragon of both Aryan racial purity and of National Socialist philosophy;

The Waffen-SS will be organized along military lines, function as a "state police," but be prepared for any & all "special tasks" that may be required;

The Waffen-SS will earn its authority through front line combat;

The Waffen-SS will concentrate on internal enemies of the state, the Wehrmacht will concentrate on the external enemies;

The Waffen-SS will be an exclusive formation, limited in size.

The Waffen-SS were a political-ideological elite military formation akin to the Teutonic Knights; brave soldiers that represented both the Nazi ideal and were the future aristocratic spine of the German Empire. However, WWII created massive changes in the structure and purpose of the Waffen-SS.

"Ich schwöre Dir, Adolf Hitler, als Führer und Kanzler des Reiches, Treue und Tapferkeit. Ich gelobe Dir und den von Dir bestimmten Vorgesetzten Gehorsam bis in den Tod, so wahr mir Gott helfe".

"I swear to you Adolf Hitler as Fuehrer and Chancellor of the German Reich, loyalty and courage.
I vow you and to the superiors appointed to you, obedience unto death, so help me God".

Ancestry requirements
The Aryan recruit also had to show no traces of Jewish or other Untermenschen blood in his ancestry, in the case of ordinary soldiers back to 1800 and to 1750 for officers. Those with "undesirable" blood were refused entry and if racial impurities came to light during his service an SS man could be summarily dismissed.

Titel: Pre-war SS-VT guardThe future brides of SS men were also subjected to the same level of racial profiling to ensure any offspring were "pure" Aryans. With the strength of the armed SS limited by the Army, these restrictions meant that it was very hard to join the armed force of the Nazi Party. However, such was the mystique built up around the armed SS that every place was over-subscribed, helping to build its image as an élite force. Unlike army conscripts, ordinary enlisted SS men had to serve a minimum of 4 years, non-commissioned officers 12 years and officers 25 years.

Heinrich Himmler
In January 1929 Hitler appointed a chicken farmer, Heinrich Himmler, as head of the SS with the brief to build it up as a force to rival the SA. Even though the SS was nominally part of Röhm's force, Himmler was totally loyal to Hitler and threw himself into expanding his new fiefdom. Over the next four years he expanded the SS to some 52,000 men, which not only included bodyguards but also a covert secret intelligence organization called the Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service, or SD).
Loyalty to Hitler was at the core of the SS ethos. The expanded SS organization was essentially a shadow internal security apparatus that would help the Nazis gain and keep power in Germany...

A crucial development was the setting up in Berlin in March 1933 of a new, elite grouping within the SS under the command of one of Hitler's old henchmen from Munich. Josef "Sepp" Dietrich was an old party crony of Hitler, whom he trusted implicitly (he had been appointed commander of Hitler's bodyguard in 1928).

The new group was initially only 117 men strong and was dubbed the SS-Stabswache Berlin. Its job was to guard Hitler and his official residence in the Reichs Chancellery.




SS racial offices
As well as its armed and security branches, the SS also eventually boasted unusual organizations such as the SS marriage bureau, the Rasse-und Siedlungshauptamt (Central Office for Race and Resettlement, or RuSHA), which first had the responsibility of confirming the racial purity of the brides of SS men. There was also the Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle (German Racial Assistance Office, or VOMI), which was charged with protecting the well-being of ethnic Germans living outside the borders of the Reich.
These groups then helped in the establishment of the Reichskommisariat für die Festigung des Deutschen Volkstums (Reich Office for the Consolidation of the German Nationhood, or RKFDV), which was nominally responsible for the movement of ethnic Germans back into Reich territory, but was really a cover for the deportation and eventual extermination of Jews, Slavs and other groups considered untermenschen (sub-humans) by Hitler.
It finally spawned the SS Wirtschafts-und Verwaltungshauptamt (Economic and Administrative Central Office, or WVHA), which was in charge of the concentration camp system and the "Final Solution" of the Jewish problem (the leaders of these organizations developed bland euphemisms for the mass-murder of most of Europe's Jews).

Growth of the SS
By the end of the 1930's, the SS organization had ballooned to some 200,000 men, of whom the vast majority were in its police, security and concentration camp guard units rather than in the SS-VT. During this period the SS became central to Hitler’s "folk myth", with senior figures in the organization being portrayed as Nordic gods in Nazi propaganda. The racial purity of SS recruits was given great prominence, and Hitler tried to build on this as a way to indoctrinate the German people with his theories of racial superiority. The SS also had its own rank system that gave members prestige and power over ordinary mortals in the Army, the Nazi Party and in civilian branches of government.
During the course of WWII, the Waffen-SS  grew form an elite force of 4 division of ethnic Germans to a polyglot force of 900,000 men in 41 divisions and other units, with over half of its troops foreign volunteers or conscripts. It gained a fearsome combat reputation and committed many war crimes. Waffen-SS strength event at its peak represented only 10% of the German Army compliment - although SS panzer units made up 25% of all German Armed forces Panzer strength!

However, SS fighting capability did not increase proportionally to its growth in size. By 1944, the Waffen-SS order of battle was inflated with "divisions" with the strength of battalions and a plethora of mixed bag foreign conscripts. Although the Waffen-SS is most famous for its battlefield exploits during the latter part of the war, and is often thought of as a military formation exclusively, it is important to recognize that the Waffen-SS never entirely disassociated itself from internal security duties for the Reich, either in practice or purpose.



Each young man who was accepted into the Waffen-SS  was very proud of this. Out of 500 volunteers in my group,

only 28 qualified. Being accepted at all was a great honor, because of such a strict selection process".

- a veteran recalled -

Picture right credit: Marc Rikmenspoel. Image: Waffen-SS recruits at a medical examination - late 1930s. Only the best applicants were accepted. Of those, only the most promising were selected for officer training, and only 60% of these passed their courses. Those men who became battalion and higher-level commanders in the SS-VT after beginning their careers as simple enlisted men were in many ways the “best of the best”, and in that light, it is not surprising that so many were highly considered.


The role of the Waffen-SS
Although the Waffen-SS was primarily an armed force at Hitler's disposal for the maintenance of order inside Germany, Hitler also decreed that in time of war it was to serve at the front under army command. He believed that frontline experience for the Waffen-SS was essential if such a force was to command the respect of the German people. He also insisted that its human material was to be of the highest caliber, and so restricted the size of the Waffen-SS to between five and ten percent of the peacetime strength of the German Army.


Recruiting in the Waffen-SS


(1) Recruiting

(a) General.

In principle, no new members were accepted for the SS after 1933 except from selected graduates of the Hitler Youth. The creation of the Waffen-SS and its rapid growth have caused the partial suspension of this rule, although service in the Waffen-SS does not necessarily entail membership in the General SS.
(b) Pre-war recruitment.

Suitable SS candidates were singled out while still in the Hitler Youth. In particular boys who had proved themselves, often under SS leadership, in the HJ patrol service (HJ-Streifendienst) were welcomed as future SS men. If the candidate satisfied SS requirements with respect to political reliability, racial purity, and physique, he was accepted at the age of 18 as a candidate (Bewerber). On the occasion of the annual Party Congress (Reichspartei) in September of the same year, he was accepted as an aspirant (Anwärter), received an SS certificate (SS-Ausweis), and was enrolled in the ranks of the SS.

(c) Wartime recruitment.

Recruitment and enrollment of new members for the SS have become of particular importance in view of the great expansion of the Waffen-SS during the war. The SS Central Department (SS-Hauptamt) is responsible for recruiting and registration of Germans and of "Germanic" and "non-Germanic" foreigners for the Waffen-SS. It exercises such functions for German and "Germanic" personnel through the Recruiting and Registration Group (Amtsgruppe B), and for "non-Germanic" foreigners through Group D—Germanic SS (Amtsgruppe D).

The SS Main Operational Department (SS-Führungshauptamt—SS-FHA), which is responsible for the operational control of the Waffen-SS, lays down the general policy on recruiting and notifies its special requirements from time to time. The SS Central Department, however, remains responsible for the whole recruiting system of both the General SS and the Waffen-SS. Recruiting for the General SS, now almost at a standstill as a result of the war, is carried out through its own local units.

Service in the Waffen-SS is, at least officially, voluntary. The Waffen-SS claims priority over all other branches of the Armed Forces in the selection of recruits. To meet the high rate of casualties and the expansion of Waffen-SS field divisions, service in the Waffen-SS was made compulsory for all members of the General SS and voluntary transfer of personnel after being inducted into any of the other branches of the Armed Forces was permitted. Since 1943 a great amount of pressure has been exerted on members of the Hitler Youth to "volunteer" for the Waffen-SS. Still more recently, complete Army, Navy, and Air Force units were taken over by the Waffen-SS, given SS training, and incorporated into its field units.

(d) Recruitment machinery within Germany.

The enlistment drives of the Waffen-SS within Germany, at first occurring at irregular intervals, are now practically continuous, indicating the great need for replacements. The SS-Standarte "Kurt Eggers", through its various agencies is the most successful propaganda machinery for the Waffen-SS. Through its war reporter battalion (Kriegsberichter Abteilung) it publicizes the important role of the Waffen-SS in the German press. Recruitment for the Waffen-SS is regionally organized and controlled by the recruiting office (Ergänzungsamt—Amt I), which is subordinate to the Recruiting and Registration Group. The regional organization consists of recruiting centers (Ergänzungsstellen), which are named in accordance with the SS districts (SS-Oberabschnitte) in which they are located. They also carry the Roman numeral of the Wehrkreis and are always located at the Wehrkreis headquarters city, except in SS district "Mitte", where the recruiting center is at Braunschweig instead of Hannover, and SS district "Weichsel", where it is at Gotenhafen instead of Danzig. Some of these recruiting centers also maintain branch offices outside Germany for the recruitment of racial Germans (Volksdeutsche). The recruiting centers, in cooperation with various State and military authorities effect the release of the examined and accepted applicants by the Reich Labor Service and by the recruiting sub-area headquarters (Wehrbezirkskommando). The recruits are then sent to a specific training and replacement unit or maneuver area of the Waffen-SS.

In January 1945, the recruiting centers for the Waffen-SS were combined with those of the Army for its volunteers for the officer and non-commissioned officer careers and for Volks Grenadier divisions. Under Himmler's orders "combined recruiting centers of the Army and Waffen-SS" (Ergänzungsstellen des Heeres und der Waffen-SS) were set up in each Wehrkreis, with branch offices in all major cities.

(e) Recruitment machinery outside Germany.

The original decision to enlist "Germanic" and "non-Germanic" foreigners to serve with the Waffen-SS was based on the propaganda rather than on the fighting value of these volunteers. No doubt for this reason the men were mostly organized in small independent national legions.

In Scandinavia and the occupied countries of the West, the recruiting was undertaken largely by the local Nazi and Quisling parties; in the Baltic states by the German controlled governments; and in the Balkans by the German authorities in agreement with the governments concerned. With the growing need for reinforcements, a large element of compulsion entered into the recruiting campaigns. At the same time the small uneconomic legions were reorganized into regiments and battalions, either to be incorporated into existing Waffen-SS divisions or to form the basis for new divisions and brigades. Early in 1943 the German government, in exchange for promises to deliver certain quantities of war equipment, obtained from the governments of Rumania, Hungary, and Slovakia their consent to an all-out recruiting drive for the Waffen-SS among the "racial" Germans domiciled in those countries. In effect, all able-bodied men who could be considered to be of German origin, including some who could scarcely speak the language, were induced by various forms of social and economic pressure to volunteer, and many men already serving in the Armies of these three countries were transferred to the Germans. Well over 100,000 men were obtained in this manner and were distributed among all the divisions of the Waffen-SS.


The whole of this foreign recruiting organization is controlled by the Germanic recruiting office (Germanisches Ergänzungsamt—Amt II) in the Germanic SS group (Amtsgruppe D—Ag D). Orginally this recruiting organization consisted of a number of recruiting commands (Ersatzkommandos) established in the principal cities of the occupied countries. Subsequently these were reorganized as SS recruiting inspectorates (SS-Ersatzinspektionen) responsible for recruiting over a wide area, e.g. SS recruiting inspectorate Südostraum at Vienna for the whole of the Balkans. Such inspectorates control a number of recruiting commands covering smaller areas, which again are subdivided into branch offices (Nebenstellen); finally, there are various enlistment centers (Werbestellen) under each branch office.


(2) Training

(a) General.

Propaganda on behalf of the SS, political education, physical training, pre-military and technical training, as well as training within the SS, are the responsibility of the SS Central Department. However, the responsibility for the military training of Waffen-SS units devolves entirely on the SS Main Operational Department.

Before the war the SS aspirant in his first year of service trained for the SA Defense Training Badge (SA-Wehrabzeichen) and the Reich Sports Badge in bronze (bronzenes Reichssportabzeichen). He was then called up first for six months of service in the Reich Labor Service, and then for his term of duty in the German Army. After two and a half years, he returned to the SS to receive further intensive training and indoctrination. Finally, on the ninth of November following his return to civil life, he was inducted into the SS as a full SS man. The outbreak of the war and the creation of the Waffen-SS interrupted this training schedule.

(b) Propaganda and political education.

The Office for Political Education (Amt Weltanschauliche Erziehung—Amt I) in the Education and Physical Training Group (Amtsgruppe C—Ag C) is responsible for propaganda and the political education of German personnel. This is carried out mainly in two ways. In the first place this office supervises the issuance of a number of propaganda publications, such as the Waffen-SS recruiting handbook "Dich ruft die Waffen-SS", the series of SS educational booklets (SS-Schulungshefte), a news magazine for SS and Police (SS-Informationsdienst), and an illustrated magazine with stories and articles for more general consumption (SS-Leitheft). Secondly, this office holds political education courses for SS officers and enlisted personnel in SS training camps (SS-Ausbildungslager) and in addition is responsible for the appointment of education officers (Schulungsoffiziere) to the staffs of the SS training schools. Political and propaganda directives for the Waffen-SS also emanate from this office.


The foreign recruits often require special indoctrination before they can be handed over to the Waffen-SS as fit for its military training. To meet this need special training camps (Ausbildungslager) were established. Such camps and the whole political education of foreign volunteers are under the control and supervision of the Office for Germanic Training (Germanische Erziehung—Amt III) in the Germanic SS group. This office issues a number of propaganda publications for foreign volunteers, including a magazine for each nationality in its own language and also a number of newspapers.

(c) Physical and preliminary training.

The Office for Physical Training (Amt für Leibeserziehung—Amt II) in the Education and Physical Training Group is charged with the responsibility for physical training of all branches of the SS. The SS instructors in athletics and physical culture are trained at the SS Central School for Physical Training (SS-Reichsschule für Leibesubungen), and special SS manuals on the subject are issued. In addition the Office for Physical Training has set up special physical training camps for the Germanic SS outside the Reich. The SS has for some time taken a very active interest in the premilitary training programs of the Hitler Youth and other Party organizations.

(d) Technical training.

As part of the general program of training and preparation for the Waffen-SS, special SS Higher Vocational Schools (SS-Berufsoberschulen) have been set up under the control and direction of the Education and Physical Training Group for giving higher technical training to candidates for the Waffen-SS. All German boys who are apprentices or students in business, trade, or agriculture, and are attending a trade or technical school may apply for entry into such a school as officer applicants of the Waffen-SS. The wartime course is limited to 1 1/2 years and is free to the selected candidates.

The Vocational Schools of the Waffen-SS (Berufsschulen der Waffen-SS) give similar training, though of a lower standard.

(e) Military training.

The military training of the Waffen-SS is controlled entirely by the SS Main Operational Department, which exercises this function through three main agencies:

The Training Branch (Abt 1 d) in the Headquarters Office of the Waffen-SS (Kommandoamt der Waffen-SS—Amt II) supervises and coordinates the whole sphere of training in the Waffen-SS. This branch is divided into a number of sections, each of which is responsible for a certain type of training. Its mission includes close cooperation with all other offices and inspectorates concerned with military training, liaison with the training agencies of the German Army, and issuance and control of all instructional material. It also registers and controls the training of future SS staff officers, providing courses for supply officers (1 b-Lehrgänge) and for intelligence officers (1 c-Lehrgänge).


The SS inspectorates (SS-Inspektionen), which are combined into an inspectorate group (Amtsgruppe C—Ag C), are responsible for the technical and unit training within the various branches of service. There are ten such inspectorates, numbered in a broken series from one to 13. Each one is headed by an Inspector (Inspekteur), who is directly responsible to the Chief of the SS Main Operational Department. It may control experimental and demonstration units and staffs, and it usually works in close liaison with the corresponding inspectorate in the OKH.

The Training Group (Amtsgruppe B—Ag B) is responsible for individual officer and noncommissioned officer training. It exercises these functions through the Office for Officer Training (Amt Führerausbildung—Amt XI), which controls all officer candidate schools (SS-Junkerschulen) and courses, and the Office for Noncommissioned Officer Training (Amt Unterführerausbildung), which controls all noncommissioned officer schools and courses.

(f) Schools and courses.

During 1943 and 1944 the Waffen-SS established schools and courses for almost all branches of military affairs needed by a complete and well balanced military organization. As a result, it is now thoroughly equipped with schooling facilities of its own, although certain highly specialized types of personnel are still trained in special SS courses at regular Army schools.

The SS schools may be divided into four categories: special service schools, officer candidate schools, noncommissioned officer schools, and specialist training establishments.

Almost all the schools of the Waffen-SS have certain basic elements of organization in common, which are analogous to those of Army schools. They are headed by a commander who is assisted by a headquarters staff (Kommandostab). Under this they have instruction groups (Lehrgruppen) of battalion status and inspectorates (Inspektionen) of company status.

Special-service schools (Waffenschulen) have the function of providing specialized and advanced training for officers and enlisted personnel in their particular branch of service (Waffengattung). The Waffen-SS has special-service schools for mountain infantry, cavalry, Panzer Grenadiers, and Panzer troops, but not for ordinary infantry; this is explained by the fact that all Waffen-SS field divisions except some of those which are composed principally of non-German personnel are either Panzer, Panzer Grenadier, cavalry, or mountain divisions.

The courses at the special-service schools may be divided into three main categories: reserve officer candidate courses (Reserve-Junker-Lehrgänge—RJL); preparatory courses (Vorbereitungs-Lehrgänge) for officer applicants (Führer-Bewerber—FB) and reserve officer applicants (Reserve-Führer-Bewerber—RFB); and courses for technicians, which are found mainly at the special-service schools of the signal troops and artillery and which use special technical equipment peculiar to their respective arms.

Most of the Waffen-SS special-service schools have demonstration regiments (Lehrregimenter) attached to them for demonstrating and instructing and also for experimenting with new weapons and tactics.


The two basic types of establishments for the training of noncommissioned officers for the Waffen-SS are the noncommissioned officer schools and separate noncommissioned officer courses. The former are for professional non-commissioned officers and the latter for reserve noncommissioned officers.

The SS noncommissioned officer schools (SS-Unterführer-Schulen), which train German and "Germanic" personnel, and the SS and foreign personnel noncommissioned officer schools (SS- und Waffen-Unterführer-Schulen), which train German and "non-Germanic" personnel, are organized into either one or two battalions, a battalion consisting of a headquarters and four companies. Each company usually trains noncommissioned officers for a different branch of service. On completing the course an SS noncom missioned officer applicant (SS-Unterführer-Bewerber) is appointed SS noncommissioned officer candidate (SS-Unterführer-Anwarter); he may become a sergeant (SS-Unterscharführer) only after demonstrating his abilities in a troop unit.

Besides the courses for professional noncommissioned officers held at the noncommissioned officer schools, the Waffen-SS conducts short-term noncommissioned officer courses (Unterführer-Lehrgänge) for reserve noncommissioned officers. These are usually held in the field divisions during quiet periods.

Specialist training establishments have the mission of training of officer technicians (Technische Führer der Sonderlaufbahnen) and particularly noncommissioned officer technicians (Unterführer der Sonderlaufbahnen). Specialist training establishments include the Motor Technical School of the Waffen-SS (Kraftfahrtechnische Lehranstalt der Waffen-SS) at Vienna, the Ordnance Technical School of the Waffen-SS (Waffentechnische Lehranstalt der Waffen-SS) at Dachau, riding and driving schools, motor transport supply-troop schools, and a number of other types.




(1) General.

The SS Main Department for Personnel (SS-Personal-Hauptamt—SS-Pers HA) keeps a central card file on all officers of the SS. The original officer corps of the SS comprised a number of different categories, mainly dependent upon the nature of their employment. The creation of the Waffen-SS and its employment as a powerful military force necessitated the formation of a separate officer corps for the Waffen-SS. An officer may, and often does, have different ranks in the two corps.

(2) Selection of prospective officers.

The selection, registration, and training of prospective officers for the Waffen-SS is the responsibility of the SS Main Operational Department, which exercises this function through the Office for Officer Training (Amt Führerausbildung—Amt XI) in the Training Group (Amtsgruppe B). At the time of induction the recruiting center reports officer material to this office. Every volunteer has the opportunity to enter the officer career of the Waffen-SS, depending upon three qualifications, namely, his character as a German, his performance as a National Socialist and a member of the SS, and his qualifications as a soldier and leader.

Men selected as prospective officer candidates proceed to a training and replacement unit or training camp of the Waffen-SS. The unit commander concerned decides whether a candidate is fit or unfit for the officer career of the Waffen-SS after he has completed his basic training. The branch of service to which an approved candidate is to be allotted is then determined by the Office for Officer Training in consultation with the various offices and inspectorates of the SS Main Operational Department.


The officer corps of the Waffen-SS comprises three categories:

(a) Active officers of the Waffen-SS (Aktive Führer der Waffen-SS), those who adopt the career of SS officer. The elite of this category includes all pre-war graduates of the SS officer candidate schools;

(b) Reserve officers of the Waffen-SS (Reserve-Führer der Waffen-SS);

(c) Foreign officers of the SS (Waffen-Führer der SS). This category includes all active and reserve officers of "non-Germanic" nationalities. Those eligible include men who previously held a commission in their own armies and those who show leadership qualifications in the ranks of the Waffen-SS. This category, however, does not include officers coming from "Germanic" countries, who may become full-fledged officers (SS-Führer) of either the active or reserve category.

(3) Officer candidate schools.
Waffen-SS schools designed to train and provide officer material are of two basic types: SS officer candidate schools (SS-Junkerschulen), which train German and "Germanic" officers; and SS and foreign personnel officer candidate schools (SS- und Waffen-Junkerschulen), which train both German personnel and "non-Germanic" foreigners. The courses last about 6 months and are differentiated as either war-officer-candidate courses (Kriegsjunker-Lehrgänge) or war-officer-candidate courses for foreign personnel (Kriegs-Waffenjunker-Lehrgänge).
(a) Active officers.
The active officer candidates of the Waffen-SS attend the war-officer-candidate courses (Kriegjunker-Lehrgänge) held at the officer candidate schools. These candidates must have previously completed a preparatory course (Vorbereitungs-Lehrgäng) held either at a special-service school or at a training and replacement unit of the Waffen-SS. They start this course as active officer applicants (Führer-Bewerber—FB) and subsequently receive the title of SS-Junker and the equivalent rank of the lowest grade of sergeant (Unterscharführer). After the mid-term examinations at the officer candidate school they become Standartenjunker with the equivalent rank of Scharführer, and after the final examination Standartenoberjunker (equivalent to Hauptscharführer). Candidates then return to their units and, after a minimum of two months, are appointed 2d Lieutenant (Untersturmführer) by the RF-SS upon the recommendation of their regimental commanders.

(b) Reserve officers.
Reserve officer candidates of the Waffen-SS, after taking a preparatory course as Reserve-Führer-Bewerber—RFB, become SS-Junker der Reserve and then attend a reserve officer candidate course (Reserve-Junker-Lehrgang), held at a special-service school of the Waffen-SS and lasting about 4 months. After the mid-term examinations they become Standartenjunker der Reserve, and after the final examinations Standartenoberjunker der Reserve. Foreign officers of the reserve (Waffen-Führer der Reserve) also attend the reserve officer candidate courses.

Like active officer candidates, the graduates become officers only after at least 2 months of service with a unit.

(c) Foreign officers of the SS.
"Non-Germanic" officer candidates attend a war officer candidate course for foreign personnel (Kriegs-Waffenjunker-Lehrgang) held at the SS and foreign personnel officer-candidate schools (SS- und Waffenjunker-Schulen). After its completion they return to their units and after a period of 2 months are appointed Waffen-Untersturmführer by the RF-SS upon the recommendation of their regimental commander.

(4) Officer candidate courses.
Apart from the regular courses at the officer-candidate schools described above, the Waffen-SS conducts the following special officer-candidate courses:

Courses for partly disabled SS officer candidates (Lehrgänge für versehrte SS-Junker) held at the officer-candidate schools.

Special course for Panzer officer candidates (Panzer-Junker-Sonderlehrgang).

(5) Other officer training establishments.
The Waffen-SS maintains medical and economic administrative officer training establishments with the function of providing for and supervising the military education of prospective active medical and economic administrative officers of the Waffen-SS during the period of their studies at universities and other institutions.

(6) Specialist careers.
All officer candidates choosing a specialist career (Sonderlaufbahn) must have certain basic qualifications. They must have spent half a year with a field unit and successfully graduated from an officer candidate school of the Waffen-SS. The following are the various specialist careers of the Waffen-SS:

(a) Medical career.
This includes:

Physician (SS-Führer und Arzt)

Medical technician (SS-Führer im Sanitätstechn. Dienst)

Dentist (SS-Führer und Zahnarzt)

Pharmacist (SS-Führer und Apotheker)


The Medical Academy of the Waffen-SS provides for the training of all officers in the medical career. Besides their formal training students attend lectures and practical demonstrations at various universities.

(b) Veterinary career. This includes:

Veterinary (SS-Führer und Veterinär)

Veterinary technician (SS-Führer im Veterinärtechn. Dienst)

Officers in the veterinary career receive their specialist training in the Blacksmith School as well as in the veterinary training and replacement unit of the Waffen-SS.

(c) Administrative career. The Officer School of the Economic Administrative Service of the SS gives lectures and provides practical application for officers in the administrative career. Besides lectures at universities, the training includes practical experience and instruction at an administrative office of the Waffen-SS.

(d) Ordnance technician career. This includes:

Ordnance supply officer (SS-Führer im Waffen- und Munitionsdienst)

Ordnance officer technician (Techn.SS-Führer W)

Engineering officer (Techn.SS-Führer W Ing.)

The Ordnance Technical School and the engineering schools of the Waffen-SS provide for the specialized training of these officers.

They also attend lectures and receive practical application at technical institutions.

(e) Motor technical career. This includes:

Motor officers (Technische SS-Führer (K) I)

Motor officers (Technische SS-Führer (K) II)

The Motor Technical School of the Waffen-SS provides for and supervises the training of these officers.

(f) Other specialist careers of the Waffen-SS include:

Officer technician (sig) (Technische SS-Führer (N))

Judge advocate (SS-Führer und Richter)

Notary (SS-Führer und Beurkundungsführer)

Water supply officer (SS-Führer und Wehrgeologe)

Bandmaster (SS-Führer und Musikführer)

The SS-VT addressed the creation of an organic officer corps creating two officer candidate schools. SS-Brigadeführer Paul Hausser's school system was designed to provide necessary education to men who demonstrated potential. By 1936, the SS-VT was highly selective. For recruits, it only accepted young men who were healthy, in good physical shape, and who had clean police records. Additionally, recruits had to show proof of pure Germanic ancestry back to 1800, while those who became officers had to further demonstrate this to 1750.

Officers and men exercised and trained together, breaking down social barriers and creating comrades, with each man prepared to take the place of his superior, should the latter become a casualty. Party membership was not required for joining the SS-VT.

On selection to the SS school, the individual was designated an SS-Führeranwärter, or SS officer candidate. After completing the initial phase, he became an SS-Standartenjunker. Towards the end of the training period, the commandant of the SS-Junkerschule bestowed the designation of SS-Junker on qualified personnel, and when achieving this position the SS-Junker put on the rank insignia of an
SS-Scharführer. Upon the successful completion of training, but before being commissioned to the rank of SS-Untersturmführer, the officer candidate was elevated to the position of SS-Oberjunker, and was thus authorized to wear the rank insignia of an SS-Hauptscharführer.


The term Waffen-SS became official during the spring of 1940, and it indicated those units concerned with frontline  military duty. The men of the Waffen-SS had considered themselves as elite soldiers since well before World War II. This was because of the teachings of their officers, inspired by SS-Brigadeführer Paul Hausser and SS-Standartenführer Felix Steiner, and a logical consequence of their rigorous military training. Numerous Waffen-SS men who only attained junior officer rank during the 1930’s become effective division commanders during World War II, including men like Theodor Wisch, Werner Ostendorff, Hermann Priess, Karl Ullrich, Otto Kumm, Sylvester Stadler, Heinz Harmel, Fritz von Scholz, Fritz Witt, Georg Bochmann, Bruno Streckenbach, Franz Augsberger and Jürgen Wagner, all did receive the Knights Cross with Oakleaves or higher during the war!


The highest standards
General Paul Hausser readily accepted the responsibility for the organization and training of the SS-Verfügungstruppe, which enabled him to formulate the directives and codes of practice it was to use. Hausser remained in his post until the outbreak of World War II, when he took command of the SS-Verfügungs Division, which was later renamed in Das Reich. During the war, the SS established two additional Junker schools at Klagenfurt, Austria and Prague, former Czechoslovakia.

The Waffen-SS offered advancement to promising candidates regardless of their education or social standing, but those charged with grooming the new SS élite set their sights high. They called their academies Junkerschule (schools for young nobles) and devised a curriculum to transform the sons of farmers and artisans into officers and gentlemen. For some, this required basic training in matters that were not exclusively military. For example, incoming cadets were issued an etiquette manual that defined table manners. Correct form was further encouraged through cultural activities and lectures on Nazi ideology. When off-duty, officers and men addressed each other as "Kamerad". Locks were forbidden on wardrobes (much emphasis was placed on trust), and obedience was unconditional at all times.


Felix Steiner
At the heart of training was a mixture of athletics and field exercises designed to turn the Junkers into commanders. Thus, the facilities at Bad Tölz included a stadium for soccer, track and field events, separate halls for boxing, gymnastics and indoor ball games, and a heated swimming pool and sauna. The complex attracted outstanding talent. At one time, for example, eight of twelve coaches at Bad Tölz were national champions in their events.

Felix Steiner was the luminary when it came to the actual training program of the Waffen-SS. He was 16 years Hausser's junior, and his motto was "sweat saves blood". Steiner believed strongly in the creation of élite, highly mobile groups whose training put the emphasis on individual responsibility and military teamwork rather than on rigid obedience to the rule book. His ideas had been formulated and refined during World War I, when he served as the commander of a machine-gun company, witnessing the formation of "battle groups", which had greatly impressed him. They were made up from selected men, withdrawn from the trenches and formed into ad hoc assault groups. Specially trained for close-quarter fighting, usually carried out at night, they wreaked havoc in their trench raids, employing individualized weapons such as knuckle-dusters, cluster grenades and entrenching tools sharpened like razors. The enemy's customary notification of an impending attack, a long artillery barrage, was often dispensed with, thus reinforcing the element of surprise.


Steiner's program
As their value became recognized, Steiner's reforms gradually filtered throughout the SS hierarchy. In concert with the "battle group" ideology, his training stressed three main points: physical fitness, "character" and weapons training. He structured a recruit's day with a rigorous hour-long physical training session beginning at 06:00 hours, with a pause afterwards for breakfast of porridge and mineral water. Intensive weapons training followed, then target practice and unarmed combat sessions. The day was broken by a hearty lunch, then resumed with a comparatively short but intensive drill session. The afternoon was then punctuated by a stint of scrubbing, cleaning, scouring and polishing and rounded off with a run or a couple of hours on the sports field. As a result of his men spending more time on the athletics fields and in cross-country running than on the parade ground, they developed standards of fitness and endurance enabling them to perform such feats as covering 3km (1.8 miles) in full kit in 20 minutes, feats that could not be matched by either army recruits or members of the Leibstandarte (who spent a lot of time on the parade square, hence their nickname "asphalt soldiers").

Ideology and passing out
The training program stressed aggressiveness and included live-firing exercises. It was interrupted three times a week by ideological lectures, which included understanding the Führerprinzip (leadership principle) and unraveling the meanings of Hitler's Mein Kampf (ideology formed an important element in examinations, and was responsible for failing one candidate in three during the five-month course).

For the successful candidates, there was a passing-out parade where they took the SS oath, at 22:00 hours on the occasion of the 9 November anniversary celebrations of the Munich Putsch. This took place in Hitler's presence before the Feldherrnhalle and the 16 smoking obelisks, each of which bore the name of a fallen party member. The oath was a major ingredient in the SS mystique, binding each successful candidate in unswerving loyalty to Adolf Hitler.

The price of excellence
Bad Tölz and Braunschweig were the premier Waffen-SS training centers for officers from their inception in 1934 until the end of the war. By 1937, the SS schools were graduating more than 400 officers a year, in two sets of classes. These officers were very well-trained and in due course often later earned distinguished military reputations. The spirited aggressiveness taught at the school was not without cost, though, for by 1942 nearly 700 Waffen-SS officers had been killed in action, including almost all of the 60 graduates of the 1934-35 Bad Tölz class. During the war, the Junker schools accepted recruits from occupied countries. Most foreigners enlisted to fight the Soviet Union, so the SS lectures shifted from the sanctity of Nordic blood to the evils of Bolshevism.




The SS Recruiting Office
Himmler established an SS Recruiting Office within the SS-Hauptamt on 1 December 1939. The running of this office was entrusted to the steady hands of
SS-Obergruppenführer Gottlob
Berger. The armed forces were unwilling to relinquish the cream of German manhood to the SS as they were suspicious of all paramilitary forces outside their control.

Their passive resistance made Berger's task of locating the recruits who were required all the more difficult. His pool comprised those who were too young and too old to be eligible for military service in the German armed forces, and by 1940 the SS was having difficulties in finding recruits. However, Berger was able to circumvent the armed forces' restrictions by recruiting from abroad. He availed himself of Himmler's contacts outside the Reich to encourage ethnic Germans living abroad, as well as non-Germans of Nordic blood, to enlist.

Not only were these groups allowed to become members of the SS, they were also exempt from conscription in the German armed forces.


By May 1940, more than 100 foreigners were serving with the Waffen-SS. Following the defeat of France in the summer of 1940, a vast recruiting ground had opened up, over which the Wehrmacht had no jurisdiction.
In preparation for the attack on Russia, the German Army was expanded, but the SS was allowed to recruit only three percent of the newly enlisted age groups, which meant that it had to fall back on foreign manpower. Hitler was insistent that the Waffen-SS should remain a small, exclusive police force, but he did agree to the formation of a new SS division on condition that mainly foreigners were recruited. In addition, his own personal bodyguard was to be expanded from a regiment to a brigade.


The search for manpower
From the beginning of the war, German recruits had been apportioned on the basis of 66 percent to the SS-recruiting office in Amsterdamarmy, 8 percent to the navy and

25 percent to the air force. Those for the Waffen-SS were subtracted from the army's percentage on a quota established by Hitler himself. During the Polish and French campaigns, German casualties had been moderate. From its share of the available German manpower, the SS had been able to replenish its losses, but it would be forced to cast its net further afield for its replacements when it began to look as if the war would last longer than expected. Hitler's decision to invade the USSR was announced in July 1940. One of the first to be informed was Himmler, who wasted no time in informing Berger. On 7 August 1940, he drew up his SS manpower forecast.

In August 1940, there was still a strong possibility that England would be invaded, thus the navy and air force were demanding an increase of their percentages to 40 and 10 percent respectively. Berger estimated that 18,000 recruits per year would be required by the SS, but assumed that it would receive only 12,000 men, or two percent. Consequently, the Germanic areas of Western Europe, together with the ethnic German populations of southeastern Europe, were the areas where recruiting should begin in earnest. As long as the SS recruited personnel who were not available to the Wehrmacht, Berger did not anticipate any objections. He also requested permission to establish a recruiting office to deal with foreign countries.

Western Europe
In Western Europe, Berger's recruiting staff had sufficient response to form two new regiments, Nordland and Westland, and to make the new Germania Division, later named Wiking, a feasible proposition. Nevertheless, when the first enthusiastic rush of pro-German and National Socialist volunteers had been signed up, recruiting figures began to drop. Even when an existing SS regiment, Germania, was transferred to the new formation, and other Reich Germans provided cadres, there were still large gaps in its ranks. When the Soviet Union was invaded, for example, the Wiking Division contained Reich and ethnic Germans to such an extent that a mere 631 Dutchmen, 294 Norwegians, 216 Danes, 1 Swede and 1 Swiss were to be found in its ranks. Later at least 421 Finns served in their own unit, III.(Finn.)/SS-Pz.Gren.Btl.


The anti-Bolshevik crusade
German diplomatic agencies received offers of help from individuals living in the occupied countries, as well as in the Independent State of Croatia and in neutral Spain and Portugal following the German attack on the Soviet Union. The German Government decided to accept these offers of assistance and to establish contingents of foreign nationals. On 29 June 1941, Hitler gave his formal approval to the establishment of legions for foreigners who wished to take part in the crusade against the Soviet Union. Legions from the Germanic countries were to be the responsibility of the Waffen-SS, while the German Army was to organize those from non-Germanic countries. A Spanish formation was established on 25 June, and almost simultaneously Danish and Norwegian units were brought into being.

The German Foreign Office convened a meeting of interested parties on 30 June 1941. Represented at the meeting were the Foreign Office, the SS-Führungshauptamt, the Foreign Section of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW), the German Plenipotentiary in Copenhagen and the Foreign Section of the Nazi Party. Its brief was to settle the details pertaining to the formation of the new units. Because of international law, it was agreed that non-German volunteers were to fight in German uniforms but would wear national badges. It was not envisaged that German citizenship would be conferred upon the volunteers, but they were to receive the same pay and allowances as German serviceman while those with previous military experience would hold ranks equivalent to their former ones. The meeting also considered how the volunteers were to be organized. It was decided that they should be deployed only in closed units, some of which had already been formed. The Waffen-SS, being responsible for volunteers from the Germanic countries, had already set up a Freikorps in Denmark and a Freiwilligenverband in Norway, both independent of Regiment Nordland, a separate Freiwillingenkorps for the Netherlands and the Flemish parts of Belgium, in addition to and independent of Regiment Westland.

Nordic volunteers
The delegates expected that other European countries would yield few volunteers. It was agreed not to approach the Swiss Government or to launch an appeal for Swiss recruits, but Swiss volunteers were to be accepted if they presented themselves (in fact, some Swiss were already serving in the Waffen-SS). The conference reached no decision about whether Walloons and Frenchmen were to be accepted. Finns could hardly be expected to volunteer for the German Army when Finland was already fighting the Soviet Union, though some were already serving in Regiment Nordland. Swedes would probably prefer to volunteer for the Finnish armed forces, but if enough came forward a Swedish Volunteer Corps could be formed under the auspices of the SS. If equipping and training of Swedish volunteers was outside the capacity of the Finnish Army to cope with, they were to be directed to German reception centers. It was also considered probable that a number of Danes would prefer the Finnish forces. Portugal was expected to produce few volunteers, but if enough presented themselves there was the possibility of incorporating them in the Spanish formation. In fact, no Portuguese legion was formed, and it is doubtful if any Portuguese volunteered at all.

For the German Army, Hitler's newly authorized non-German legions did not represent an important increase in size, but for the Waffen-SS they provided a considerable accession of strength. Himmler was interested only in raising legions of Danes, Norwegians, Dutchmen and Flemings on racial grounds. The SS could have had a far larger share of Western European manpower but for this policy. Although in need of additional manpower, it relinquished to the army the Walloon Legion that it had sponsored because Himmler maintained that Walloons were not Germanic and that their presence in the SS might offend the Flemings.

Maintaining racial purity
In some cases, the Germans opposed enlistment. Russian émigrés had expressed a willingness to serve the Germans, but they were to be refused. However, some White Russians served as interpreters, and others served in both the French Volunteer Legion and in the Danish Freikorps. Czechs of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia who offered their assistance were not to be accepted. The newly occupied Baltic areas were to be dealt with by the local German military commander while Balts in Germany who presented themselves were to be dealt with in a derogatory manner.

Himmler probably thought that it was just not worthwhile compromising the racial purity of the SS for the sake of short-lived units that might never see action (a long campaign against the Soviet Union was not anticipated in the summer of 1941). In any case, the SS would have had difficulty in providing facilities and cadres for a division of Spaniards, a regiment each of Frenchmen and Croats, and a battalion of Walloons, in addition to those already employed - even if it had wanted to.
Finland, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Italy were allied with Germany. Small as they were, their legions had considerable propaganda value. The presence of Western Europeans and Croats in the ranks of the German forces gave Germany's act of aggression the semblance of a European crusade against Bolshevism.

Physical requirements
Apart from meeting the strict racial standards of the SS, volunteers for the Waffen-SS had to be perfect physical specimens. They signed on for an initial period of four years before the war. For the most part, volunteers came from the ranks of the Hitler Youth via the Algemeine-SS. In 1938, Himmler authorized the enlistment of Germanics into the Waffen-SS. Now, SS men needed only to be of Germanic origin, provided that they were of Nordic blood. By the end of the year, 20 foreign volunteers had been accepted. In the Waffen-SS, one could enlist for as long as 12 years and become eligible for German citizenship. Like their German comrades, foreigners could on retirement take up a career in the German police or civil service or receive land in the Incorporated Territories.

Racial criteria
Foreign nationals who volunteered for service in the Germanic legions found their conditions of acceptance were less stringent than those for the Waffen-SS. Candidates still had to be able to prove Aryan decent for two generations, and to possess an "upright" character. They also had to be between 17 and 40 years of age, although for former officers and NCOs the upper age limit was raised. The minimum height was reduced to 1.65m (5.5ft) and later disregarded. They received the same pay and allowances as members of the Waffen-SS, and were subject to the same penal code.

They wore the uniform of the Waffen-SS but with additional national insignia. Those accepted into the legions were not members of the Waffen-SS but of units attached to it. The material inducements for joining the legions were less than those of the Waffen-SS for the simple reason that the legions were a temporary creation, in which a volunteer was not expected to make a career. In many cases, the legionnaires were not affected by the advantages that other nationals received when they joined the Waffen-SS proper.

A badge for Nordic principles
Himmler wanted a badge that would be available to both the General SS in Germany and the Germanic SS abroad, and which would not only require a high standard in various sports but also ability in military activities and National Socialist ideology. But the badge had to reflect all of the Nordic principles, and be an emblem of commitment to the SS. On a much grander scale, he aimed at strengthening the pan-Germanic idea within the entire political SS organization.

The badge that Himmler introduced was called the Germanic Proficiency Runes, and its very design was geared to appeal particularly to the Germanic SS. The two runes of the SS were superimposed upon a mobile swastika, the formation sign of the Wiking Division, and later adopted by III Germanic SS Panzer Corps (made up largely of volunteers from Germanic countries). The badge was instituted in two grades, bronze and silver, with a higher standard required for the attainment of the silver. It was worn in the center of the left breast pocket of the service uniform.

The Germanic Proficiency Runes
From his headquarters on 15 August 1943, Himmler officially introduced the Germanic Proficiency Runes. In the institution document, he stated that it, "should be an example in physical training and tests in the use of weapons in the National Socialist spirit, and confirmation of the voluntary attainment of the Germanic joint destiny". Physical requirements for award of the badge included the sprint, long jump, grenade throwing, swimming, shooting and camouflage skills (observation and description of objective), climbing and digging trenches.

The Germanic Proficiency Runes were open to members of the German General SS. Although all four branches of the Germanic SS were eligible, and the rules and requirements were published in the newspapers of each, record has only been found of awards in Holland, Denmark and Norway. It is possible that the runes were awarded to members of the Flemish SS, but as this formation was on the decline in 1944 it is believed that none of its members received them. Only one presentation ceremony is recorded for each of the three countries concerned, although there may have been others later in the war.

Presenting the award
The awards of the Germanic Proficiency Runes in Denmark were made at Hovelte on 2 June 1944 by Berger. The presentation took place at a memorial ceremony for SS volunteers from Denmark killed in action, and in fact the test schedule had been timed so that the results would be ready for this ceremony. Berger spoke of the Danish SS volunteers killed in action, and how "their spirits could rest in peace knowing that new columns of Germanic fighters stood behind them". He stated that it was in the memory of the dead Danish SS volunteers and in their spirit that the first Germanic Proficiency Runes were being awarded on Danish soil. No details are available of the number of badges awarded, or of the recipients. However, photographs suggest that the badges went to members of the Schalburg Corps, who were wearing black service uniforms.

The only recorded awards of the Germanic Proficiency Runes in Norway were made at the Norwegian SS school on 16 August 1944, when the Higher SS and Police Leader in Norway, SS-Obergruppenführer Rediess, acting on instructions from Himmler, awarded 10 in silver and 15 in bronze to members of the Norwegian SS.

Rediess spoke of the badge's meaning, and how the 25 recipients had, though their behavior, been a good example to their comrades in the Germanic SS and to the youth of Norway. After the awards, Rediess made a short speech on the meaning of the SS victory runes and the sun-wheel swastika design of the badge.

Once the SS Main Office handed over Waffen-SS training to the SS-Führungshauptamt (SS-FHA), it was left with only ideological training, physical training and vocational training through its Branch C - offices CI, CII and CIII respectively. It was CII that was responsible for the testing. SS-Standartenführer der Reserve Herbert Edler von Daniels, Chef SS Hauptamt Amt C II, was the commanding officer and authorizing signatory for the test document. The office was in Prague, and it was here that the tests were now taken, with exams being held in the Beneshau/Prague area of Czechoslovakia. The first recorded test following on from those in Norway was held from 23 September 1944 until 26 September 1944, then from 26 October 1944 until 29 October 1944, and the last from 6 March 1945 until 9 March 1945.

A Settling of Scores
Technically, all those foreign nationals who fought for Germany in World War II were traitors, and as such deserved a traitor's fate. Stalin was more than happy to shoot or work to death all those from the Soviet republics who had taken up arms against him, and also wreaked vengeance on their families for good measure. In the West, although there were thousands of trials after the war for collaborators, justice rather than revenge was the prime motive. At the end of World War II, there were millions of men and women of non-German origin who had served Nazi Germany between 1939 and 1945 and whose fate had to be determined by the victorious Allies.

Russian nationals
The German Army, the agent for spreading Nazi ideology throughout Europe, made use of great numbers of foreign volunteer units. These included "sub-human" Slavs, although Hitler had categorically forbidden the use of Russians by the German forces (an order that was largely ignored by divisional commanders). Their utilization not only occurred, it occurred on a vast and vital scale. It is a strange and ironic truth that without Russian aid Germany's war against Stalin could not have continued as long as it did. Desertion from the Red Army was massive in the early stages of the 1941 invasion. Many of the defectors offered their services to the Wehrmacht. Reluctant to turn away willing hands, the army took them on, albeit "off the record", as Hiwi's. They may have been given uniforms and rations but old prejudices died hard - there was a kind of racist supremacy pleasure in seeing Hiwi’s digging ditches and latrines. But, then, especially during the winter of 1941-42, hundreds of Hiwi’s were sucked into the vortex of battle and became de facto combatants. Their courage and steadiness under fire, and their uncomplaining fortitude in the face of hardship and danger, won for them the respect of the German soldier at the front and did much to break down the psychological barrier between "sub-human" Slavs and "supermen" Aryans created by Nazi propaganda. Berlin would have never agreed, of course, and so the German Army never declared the Hiwi’s, and thus thousands of Russians never appeared on the recorded strengths of German divisions in the East. By the end of 1941, around 150,000 Russians were in the employ of the Wehrmacht. Less than a year later, this had risen to 500,000; of these, some 200,000 were in combat units. By the end of 1943, this figure had doubled. Large proportions of this manpower pool were later absorbed into the Waffen-SS.

Western and Eastern foreign nationals
The foreign volunteer program was always central to the development of the Waffen-SS as the war developed, but was it worth it, both in terms of manpower and contribution to the German war effort? The SS was able to tap a useful source of high-grade manpower in the case of Western European volunteers, which the German armed forces would otherwise have found unavailable. The Western volunteers were usually highly motivated and their units well equipped, although there were a number of initial problems, not least that SS training grounds, officer and noncommissioned officer (NCO) schools were not set up to readily accommodate non-German recruits. As a result, the Western recruits fought well on the battlefield, the ultimate criterion for any military organization, and the Nordland and Wiking Divisions were among the best fielded by the Waffen-SS.

Disaster in the East
If there were problems integrating Western volunteers, then German policy with regard to the Eastern volunteers can only be seen as an almost unmitigated disaster. On the credit side, the German invasion of the Soviet Union did serve to galvanize foreign nationals, Western Europeans that is, by suggesting that it was a "European" undertaking intent on ridding the world of communism. This had less appeal to the Eastern volunteers, who may have wanted to rid their homelands of the Bolsheviks but also wanted national self-determination. This was anathema to the Germans, of course, and so the Eastern volunteer units were never used to their full potential. They were employed for rear-area tasks, or even shipped off to the Atlantic Wall for garrison duties. And once away from their homelands, their morale plummeted. How much more effective they could have become had they been used to fight for the re-establishment of their homelands will never be known, but the ill-conceived German policy towards them hampered Nazi aims in the East. The ultimate example of this is the fiasco of Vlassov's army, which only became a reality when the war was already lost.

The whole Eastern program could have been excused in 1941 or perhaps even as late as 1942 for its propaganda potential, but thereafter it siphoned off trained officers and NCOs desperately needed elsewhere when manpower and material shortages began to bite in 1943. In the same way, it frittered away essential stocks of war munitions on second-rate units.

Western Europeans :
The Waffen-SS recruited many foreign volunteers into its ranks. After the May 1940 "Victory in the West," the SS began an active program to gain Western European recruits for several new Waffen-SS volunteer legions. This effort intensified after June 1941, as the SS exhorted volunteers to join the "anti-Bolshevik" campaign in the Soviet Union.

Why were the Waffen-SS were so interested in Western European volunteers?
This effort was in response to Hitler and the German army setting strict quotas on the number of German youth the SS could recruit.
Over 125,000 West Europeans volunteered for the SS. Although their experiences really need to be researched on a unit by unit basis, here are some common elements regarding their service:


- They took slightly different oath than Germans;

- They were often (at least at first) treated as 2nd class citizens by German SS officers;

- Language differences were an issue;

- They were exposed to less Nazi indoctrination, or the Nazi propaganda was tailored to their nationality;

- The were often partly motivated by their own political or nationalistic agendas;

- They were often the most disciplined and fanatic SS warriors.


As the war progressed, they realized that their countrymen began to look on them as traitors and collaborators

At first Nazi racial polices determined acceptance level of volunteers. For example: Flemish volunteers were considered "Aryan" enough to volunteer for the Waffen-SS, whereas Walloons were not; which is why the Walloon volunteer legion was assimilated at first by the German Army, not the SS. These racial standards were increasingly ignored as the German war fortunes declined and the SS was in desperate need of manpower.

Volksdeutsche :
The Waffen-SS also recruited great numbers of Volksdeutsche from central and eastern European countries as well. Despite their ethnic background, these troops often suffered greater language and motivation difficulties that the western legions. Volksdeutsche seemed to have a bit of a mixed reputation among the Reichsdeutsche Waffen-SS - in some instances they were considered good soldiers, yet in others the Volksdeutsche were considered cowardly and untrustworthy.


Eastern/Central European/Balkan volunteers :
As the German fortunes steadily declined, the Waffen-SS took to recruiting or conscripting increasing numbers of foreign recruits that were by no stretch of the imagination bore any relation to the Nazi "ideal". These troops, although numerous, were perhaps the least motivated of all.





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